In a tunnel digging project, the length or the type of ground often require the intervention of a tunnel boring machine (tbm). The tbm allows the creation of the tunnel by digging directly into the rock. While digging, the tbm also installs the precast segments in place, so that they form the coating of the tunnel.
How Tunnels Are Made?
Tunnels are an integral part of many infrastructure projects, from highways to metro systems, and they’re constructed using a variety of methods. Depending on the project’s size, the terrain, and the soil conditions, the construction process can vary. But generally, the same steps are followed for most tunnel projects.
The first step in the process is to survey the site and plan the design. This includes taking soil samples and determining the size, depth, and route of the tunnel. Once the survey is complete, the construction team will create a 3D model of the tunnel to be used as a blueprint.
Next, the construction team will begin the excavation process. Depending on the size of the tunnel and the soil conditions, the team might need to use a variety of methods to excavate the space. These include cutting and blasting, digging out soil with a backhoe, or using a tunnel-boring machine.
Once the excavation is complete, the team will begin the process of reinforcing the tunnel walls and roof. This is done by placing steel reinforcements, such as rebar, into the walls and roof. The reinforcements are then covered with concrete, which provides additional strength and stability.