Sedimentary rocks are classified based on their texture and composition. Detrital sediment has a clastic (broken) texture. Chemical and organic sediments have a non-clastic texture, and are classified based solely on their composition.
On What Basis Are Sedimentary Rocks Classified?
Sedimentary rocks are defined and classified based on several criteria, including texture, composition, and depositional environment.
The most common sedimentary rocks include sandstone, limestone, and shale, which are easily distinguished by their characteristic textures.
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed of sand–sized grains of minerals, rocks, or organic material. The grains are cemented together by natural compounds such as silica, calcium carbonate, or iron oxide.
Sandstone has a wide range of colors, depending on the type of minerals present in the rock. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate.
It can be formed from the remains of marine organisms such as coral or from the precipitation of calcium carbonate from freshwater or marine environments.
Limestone is often used in construction due to its durability and strength. Shale is a sedimentary rock composed of clay–sized particles.
It can be formed from the decomposition of other rocks or from the precipitation of minerals from water. Shale is often used in construction due to its ability to be easily molded and its resistance to fire.
Sedimentary rocks are classified based on their texture, composition, and depositional environment. The most common sedimentary rocks include sand